XML is eXtensible Markup Language is a markup language developed by W3C(World Wide Web Consortium).
It defines a set of rules that are self descriptive.
It is designed to store and transport information or data which is wrapped in non-predefined tags unlike HTML which has predefined tags. The author of XML has to define the tags and document structure.

XML separates data from presentation. That is, it carries the data but does not carry any information about how to display it. The formatting and displaying is taken care of by HTML. A typical XML document is tree structure that starts with a root and branches to leaves. XML has syntax rules and any XML document that conforms to these syntax rules is said to be “Well Formed” XML document.

XHTML stands for eXtensible HyperText Markup Language. It is almost similar to HTML but more stricter than HTML. XHTML is developed by combining HTML and XML. Where is it strict?

  • XHTML DOCTYPE is mandatory
  • XHTML document must have one root element
  • <html>, <head>, <title>, and <body> are mandatory
  • XHTML elements must be in lowercase, properly nested and closed

SGML stands for Standard Generalized Markup Language is a standard for specifying a document markup language or tag set. Such a specification is called Document Type Definition(DTD). Therefore, it is not considered language in itself but a metadata.

SGML was derived from GML (Generalized Markup Language), which allowed users to work on standardized formatting styles for electronic documents. Apparently HTML and XML use SGML principles. Meaning, SGML is a superset of HTML and XML.



What is ECMAScript ?

ECMA is a short form for European Computer Manufacturer’s Association. ECMAScript (ES) defines a standard and contains specifications for scripting languages such as JavaScript (Netscape /Mozilla browser implementation of the ECMA specification)and JScript (Microsoft’s Internet Explorer) developed by Brendan Eich in 1995. Therefore, one can also say that ES is a superset of JS and JScript.

That means it is used for client side scripting such as JavaScript and  for writing server side applications and services using Node.js.

Several editions with new feature support per edition have been published for ECMAScript. It should be noted that with each version release, there were support compatibility issues with some browser’s versions.



Javascript bundling and minification

Bundling is basically concatenating all small or big javascript and or css files into one huge file to minimize the number of requests and hence load on the server.

To speedup loading of a webpage bundling and  minification of the bundled code is necessary. Minification is the process of removing unnecessary characters like whitespace, comments, new line characters etc. from source code to reduce the overall size of the content without changing the functionality of the code.

So, less file size means lesser time to process and download files. Of course, there are various approaches to bundling and minification using bundlers like Webpack,  Browserify, RequireJS etc.

No Indispensable Man

Today is 1st May, Labour’s Day – an annual holiday all over India that celebrates the achievements of workers. But with AI(Artificial Intelligence), robots and machines trending in I fear Labour is put back by machines, not completely, though.

Yes! but future talks about taking it  over completely. Some thoughts on the same and also when you are in need of introspection, this is the poem by Saxon White Kessinger

Sometime when you’re feeling important
Sometime when your ego’s in bloom
Sometime when you take it for granted,
You’re the best qualified in the room
Sometime when you feel that your going,
Would leave an unfillable hole,
Just follow these simple instructions
And see how they humble your soul.  

Take a bucket and fill it with water,
Put your hand in it up to the wrist
Pull it out and the hole that’s remaining,
Is a measure of how much you’ll be missed.
You can splash all you wish when you enter,
You may stir up the water galore,
But stop, and you’ll find that in no time,
It looks quite the same as before.  

The moral of this quaint example,
Is to do just the best that you can,
Be proud of yourself but remember,
There’s no indispensable man.

The air is still free

“Out of the city and over the hill,
Into the spaces where Time stands still,
Under the tall trees, touching old wood,
Taking the way where warriors once stood;
Crossing the little bridge, losing my way,
But finding a friendly place where I can stay.
Those were the days, friend, when we were strong
And strode down the road to an old marching song
When the dew on the grass was fresh every morn,
And we woke to the call of the ring-dove at dawn.
The years have gone by, and sometimes I falter,
But still I set out for a stroll or a saunter,
For the wind is as fresh as it was in my youth,
And the peach and the pear, still the sweetest of fruit,
So cast away care and come roaming with me,
Where the grass is still green and the air is still free.”

By Ruskin Bond

AMD in Javascript

AMD stands for Asynchronous Module Definition. In a nutshell, it’s a format or a specification for writing javascript.

So, what is a Javascript module?

Its a reusable code which exports specific objects, making them available for other modules through dependency references to be used their programs.

These modules can be loaded asynchronously, if desired.  That means, there’s  a huge improvement in website performance as the files are only loaded when they are needed.  Also, it provides developers with the flexibility to define order in which module dependencies have to be loaded and load multiple javascript files during runtime.

AMD implementation is used by jQuery, Dojo, Firebug etc. There are various javascipt module loaders like RequireJS,  Browserify,  Webpack, SystemJS

Anyways, we swing

We swing our own swings
To and fro
Does it matter?
Less or more
and roar or adore
Anyways, we swing
Out of habit
Off bit 
Uncertain of how long
But certain enough
As long as our hearts beat

Composed by Vinit Desai